Introduction to Media studies

Posted: October 26, 2013 in Assignments

1. Show your acquaintance with various usage of the term communication. Also discuss the essentials for communication with reference to various elements of the process.


The word communication is derived from the Latin word “communis” which means “sharing” and “communicare” which means “to share”. Thus, etymological meaning of communication means sharing of something. Information or knowledge or meaning can be shared thus Communication means sharing of information. All the human activities have communicative significance. Everything we do is communication, also, everything we don’t do, equally is. Communication is used to express our thoughts, feelings, purpose, attitudes or imagination.

But, the word communication is not limited in single meaning. It gives different meaning if it is studied from different points of view.

i)                    Communication as human activities: It means sharing of information.

ii)                   Communication as a discipline of knowledge: It is studied as a subject in educational institutions.

iii)                 Communication as a process: To be a process, communication should have some elements, interrelationship between them and there must be some phenomenon.

iv)                 Communication as a profession: Communication as a profession that sustains livelihood of a person. Eg. News reporter, News reader, lecturer etc can be a profession.

v)                  Communication as an industry: As communication is a profession, it forms industry such as news channel, publishing house etc.

Essentials of communication process

The essentials of communication process are :

  • There should be an environment for communication.
  • There should be co-operation between the sender and the receiver.
  • It is essential for the selection of appropriate channel.
  • Encoding and decoding of the message must be correct.
  • There should be feedback or response.

The elements in the communication process are :

  1. Source
  2. Process of encoding
  3. Message
  4. Channel
  5. Process of decoding
  6. Receiver
  7. Feedback
  8. Noise
  1. Source: Source represents the process by having thought or an idea to be transmitted. It can be single individual, groups or organizations and may or may not have knowledge about the receiver.
  2. Process of Encoding: It refers to the activities that source goes through to translate and thoughts into understandable form. Process of encoding depends from person to person as different person have different levels of encoding capacity.
  3. Message: The information that the sender wants to share is called message. It may be rational or emotional and can be transmitted verbally or non-verbally.
  4. Channel: It is the medium through which the information gets transmitted to the receiver. Without medium, the message sent by sender cannot reach to the receiver.
  5. Process of decoding: This process is opposite of encoding where the original message is found by reversing the coding process. Both humans and machines can be the decoders.
  6. Receiver: Receiver is simply understood as the target of the message. It can be a single individual, group, an organization or large anonymous collection of people. The source and receiver may not always be in the immediate presence and they can be separated by both space and time.
  7. Feedback: The receiver when receives the message gives response which is called feedback. It represents reversal flow of the communication. It shows how the message has been interpreted and this may classify the feedback into negative and positive feedback. While giving feedback, the original receiver becomes the new source.
  8. Noise: The noise, often knows as barrier in communication process can be defined as anything that interferes with the delivery of message. No communication is perfect. Noise can be semantic, mechanical or environmental. Semantic noise refers to the way of interpretation of the message by the receiver. Mechanical noise refers to the problem with the machine used in communication process. Environmental noise refers to the sources of noise that are external to the communication process, in spite of that, interferes with it. Other types of noise may be lack of interest, knowledge, emotions, personality etc.

2.  Discuss different types of communication with different examples.

Communication is defined as the imparting or exchanging of information by speaking, writing or using some other medium. There are different types of communication and they’re categorized as follow

a. On the basis of code being used

b. On the basis of medium being used

c. On the basis of social structure

a.       On the basis of code being used

On the basis of code being used, communication can be of two type : Verbal communication and non-verbal communication.

– Verbal communication: Verbal communication is simply understood as the communication that involves the use of words. A great part of human communication is carried out verbally as human speech and language are most prominent.

It can be classified into

–          Spoken Verbal communication

–          Written Verbal communication

Spoken Verbal communication is a way communication that involves language and speech and is carried out orally. The language used is understood by the receiver. This is easy but is less authentic form of communication.

For eg. When a leader is giving a speech and the audiences are listening to the speech, it is spoken verbal communication.

Written Verbal communication involves scripts. It is a way of communication done by writing. The written language must be easily readable by the receiver. This is authentic form of communication.

For eg. When a person posts his her writings via blog and publishes it to the audience, it is written verbal communication.

– Non-verbal communication: Although a great part of human communication is carried out verbally, humans are also engaged in non-verbal communication. It utilizes human body and other physical objects as a code and does not involve words. This communication can be carried out through gestures, facial expression, smell, touch etc. Non-verbal communication is perfectly capable of being used to carry out complex exchange of information.

For eg. Painting is an example of non-verbal.


b.      On the basis of medium being used

Medium is simply known as channel. There are two types of Media:

-Natural Media

-Other Media (Artifactual Media and Technological Media)

On the basis of media, communication can be classified into:

–          Direct Communication: It involves the use of Natural Media. Natural Media includes the involvelemt of five sense organs. It may be audio, visual, tactile, olfactory and gustatory media. No artificial mediums are used in this communication and the feedback is immediate.

Eg. There is direct communication between two persons who are talking to each other face to face.

–          Mediated Communication: It involves the use of other media like artifactual media and technological media. Artifactual media are the human made media that includes sculpture, traffic sign posts, paintings etc. Technological media includes the scientific inventions. The feedback may or may not be immediate.

Eg. There is mediated communication when two persons are talking on the phone.

c. On the basis of social structure


On the basis of social structure, communications can be classified into :

i)                    Intrapersonal Communication

ii)                   Interpersonal Communication

iii)                 Group Communication

iv)                 Organizational Communication

v)                  Mass communication


i)                    Intrapersonal Communication: It is a communication that takes place within our heads i.e intra-physic dialogues that occurs consciously or unconsciously. Here, the sender and receiver is same individual. The medium of this type of communication is neurological apparatus that are processed in the brain. The communication capacity depends from one individual to other.

For eg. Playing with thoughts.  

ii)                  Interpersonal Communication: It is a type of communication where the communication takes place between two different individuals. It may be direct communication (communication taking place with the use of Natural media) or mediated communication (communication taking place with the use to artifactual or technological media). It can be formal or informal depending upon the psychology of the in individual involved, relationship between them, context or environment.


For eg.  Talking to your mother about the studies.

iii)                Group Communication: Group communication takes place in a group setting with or without the use of mechanical device. This is more complex than intrapersonal or interpersonal communications as it takes place between numbers of people. The degree of directness and intimacy depends upon the size of group, environment and the relation between the members involved. It has no strict formal structure. Some scholars say that Group communication is an extended version of Interpersonal communication.

For eg. Group of friends discussing about their favorite musical band.

iv)                Organizational communication: Organizational Communication takes place within or among organizational setup. It has been an integral part of human beings in the world which takes place at different hierarchical level. The communication becomes complex since large number of employees are involved. It has strict formal structure.

For eg. When two organizations decides to sponsor a football match, communication taking place between them is called organizational communication.

v)                  Mass communication: Mass communication is a communication process concerned with the communication taking place between large numbers of people. It is always mediated. Here, the audience may be known or unknown.

For eg. A talk show in a television can be the example of mass communication.

3. Discuss the evolution of the concept of mass communication with suitable examples.

From the beginning of the time, consciously or unconsciously, humans have been communicating with each other which makes them.

“Mass” refers to the people from different society, heterogeneity, religion, culture etc.  The concept of mass communication evolved with the concept of mass society.  Mass society, simply meaning huge society, formed due to industrialization, mass migration, urbanization and modernization.

For example: An industry that gives employment to 10,000 workers got established in the locality of 1000 people (public). To fulfill the requirement of the workers, people migrated from various places. These migrated people were from different localities, religion and spoke different language. They were called “mass”. To fulfill the basic needs of these mass, many shops and malls were established. The mass formed a new society called mass society. They got limited time to interact and new culture was observed. It was called mass culture. As people had limited time to interact with each other, there should something that could provide them with the information. Thus, concept of mass communication evolved with the concept of mass society.

  1. Saurav Gautam says:

    Timro assignment ho yo? Well written.

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