Research Methodology Assignment #2

Posted: November 29, 2015 in Assignments

What is research design? What are its characteristics and elements? Also discuss various types of research design.

-Research design simply means the creating a detailed outline for the research process to be conducted. As research is a scientific process, it should be objective and should follow a proper system. Before carrying out the procedure of data collection and analysis, one must have a design or structure.

 “A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner th23017_4

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at aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure.”1

The Research design can be splitted into 4 parts:

(a) the sampling design which deals with the method of selecting items to be observed for the given study;

(b) the observational design which relates to the conditions under which the observations are to be made;

(c) the statistical design which concerns with the question of how many items are to be observed and how the information and data gathered are to be analysed; and (

d) the operational design which deals with the techniques by which the procedures specified in the sampling, statistical and observational designs can be carried out.(Kothari, 2004)

The Characteristics of Research can be listed as

  1. Objectivity
  2. Reliability
  3. Validity
  4. Generalization (, 2015)


The key elements of good research design are as under :

a. Research Design is a plan which identifies the sources and kinds of information strongly related to the research problem.
b. It is a strategy indicating which method is going to be employed for collecting and analyzing the data.
c. Additionally, it consists of the time and cost budgets because most research is done under these two constraints. In a nutshell a research design must contain

  • A clear statement of the research problem.
  • Methods and techniques to be utilized for gathering information from the population to be researched.
  • Approach to be utilized in processing and analyzing data.(, 2015)


Types of Research Design

  • Descriptive research: a study designed to depict the participants in an accurate way. The three main ways to collect this information are: Observational, defined as a method of viewing and recording the participants. Case study, defined as an in-depth study of an individual or group of individuals. Survey, defined as a brief interview or discussion with an individual about a specific topic
  • Correlation research:  looking for variables that seem to interact with each other, so that when you can see one changing, you have an idea of how the other will change. This often entails the researcher using variables that they can’t control. (e.g.,case-control study, observational study)
  • Semi-experimental (e.g., field experiment, quasi-experiment)
  • Experimental (Experiment with random assignment)
  • Review (Literature review, Systematic review)
  • Meta-analytic (Meta-analysis)

Claire Selltiz and others, Research Methods in Social Sciences, 1962, p. 50.

Kothari, C. (2004). Research Methodology (2nd ed.). New Delhi: New Age International Private Limited.,. (2015). What is Research Design, Definition & Characteristics. Retrieved 29 November 2015, from,. (2015). Elements of Research Design. Retrieved 29 November 2015, from

This post is solely for assignment purpose. This time, I do not own any materials mentioned in this post.


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