Archive for the ‘Assignments’ Category


Two children, Rabin and Rabina were severely injured in the bomb blast in the bus they were traveling. They lost the warmth of their mother because of that incident and now, they are scared with the sight of the bus. Their face is disfigured in spite of plastic surgery and the dreams, they are their nightmare.

I still can hear the words of Sita Dhakal’s daughter,-“If people living in the hut are happy, don’t take their happiness away.”

This is just the story of two families taken from Frames of War/Yuddha Chitra, a documentary by Prem BK and Kesang Teseten. Nepal went through 10 years of armed conflict (1996-2006), a conflict for change, a change said to be brought sacrificing thousands of lives and destroying uncountable lives connected to them.

When Nepali media failed to incorporate the story of human sufferings, a project for the book ‘A people War’ started as a Photojournalism for peace. The project later did not limit itself to a book. Rather, 30 days Photo exhibition tour throughout the country in 31 venues were organized that brought together many people who shared the similar agony and unfolded other different stories that led to the publication of 2 more books, books as an insight to human sufferings during the war.

Not always can we see someone feeling the picture literally, can we? The video clips of a visually impaired girl touching the photos and hearing the description, the words of a girl who realized that she is not the only one who lost a father, the stories and the hopeful eyes searching the picture of their loved ones is not something that can be seen every day in some ordinary exhibition.

This documentary clenched my heart and made me ponder. With all the bullets and bombs, tear gas and stones, through jungles and through roads, we dream of turning our world into a better place by imposing new ideologies. During this process, we acknowledge the lost lives as the needed ‘sacrifice’; as the symbol of courage. But we fail to acknowledge the damage caused to the lives connected to that ‘courageous’ soul. We fail to appreciate the cost of life. The price of the blood, the price of the tears, has it been paid? The hollowness created in the life of people who are alive is yet to be filled. CAN they be filled?

I am still wondering.


Written as an assignment for Journalism-

While Reading the Photographs…

Ujaadiyeka kaakh haru

Bhaanchiyeka sahara haru

Pakhaliyeka siundoharu

Rokiyeka saas haru

Khosiyeko baalapan

Aba Kahile farkine chhainan…!


When I walked around the corridor of the RatoBangala School staring at numbers of lives portrayed in the pictures, I could feel myself repeating those words within my head. With each step taken, I got carried away with the real life story of ordinary people just like you and me. But their story was different. The difference was they had seen the war, they had felt the war and they are living with the consequences of the war. Among the numerous life-stories, the photograph of a ten year old Nutan Thapa with teardrops down her cheeks grabbed my attention. What’s her story?


Nutan Thapa is a daughter of the Dailekh journalist Dekendra Raj Thapa who was murdered by Maoists combatants in 2004. Only on 2014, the five of the accused were convicted by the court. “Today, six years later, Nutan is determined to be a journalist and follow the footsteps of her father”, reads the story. But, her mother Laxmi Thapa is not happy with her determination. The thing that struck me the most is the courage shown by a girl who lost her father in such a young age. I was astonished by the transformation of a little girl with tears to a mature girl with a resolution. Where did this strength come from?

Every human goes through the agony of one kind or the other. Some people suffer the most in comparison to the other but no pain is insignificant. Some people hold on to their grief for the rest of their life weakening their soul whereas some people have the ability to convert their pain into their greatest strength and for me, Nutan was that example. She is not running away. Rather, she is preparing herself for her future. And such are the stories that provide Hope.

-Ashma Gautam

[Media Ethics; BMS 3rd Year]

On June 06, 2016, Ekantipur[1] published news on the demise of Amber Gurung, national anthem music composer. Later, the news was found to be erroneous. A few hours later, Ekantipur published another news titled “Veteran musician Amber Gurung critical but stable” with a footnote “We apologize for the earlier erroneous news report regarding Amber Gurung. Any inconvenience caused is regretted.” No formal apology was noted. On 7th June 2016, Press Council Nepal asked for clarification from Ekantipur within 3 days for violating Code of Journalistic Ethics- 2008 Section 3 (4)[2] and (9)[3] and Section 4 (6)[4].

Mass media is a platform to exercise free expression and is a sensitive medium. Through mass media, information is disseminated in real time to the mass audience. Failure to impart true and factual information can create chaos in the society. This makes mass media sensitive and the importance of accountability emerges from this sensitivity. Media must have a sense of accountability and this is related to the ethical standards one follows. Failure to acknowledge the importance of accountability in Amber Gurung’s’ case not only created confusions in the Nepalese society but the credibility of Ekantipur also has been questioned.

Accountability is one of the most frequently cited ethical standards in Journalism. It is a phrase that can be understood as a belief where mass media is expected to accountable in the public interest. They are anticipated to behave in certain ways that contribute to the public good. The Society of Professional Journalists (SPJ) has developed some benchmarks of accountability for professional journalists that include “encouraging the public to express its grievances against the news media, admitting mistakes and correcting them promptly, exposing unethical practices of journalists and the news media, and abiding by the same high standards to which they hold others.” In addition to them, journalistic accountability can be justified by a range of activities, including publishing letters to the editor, being accessible to concerned audience members for discussion, archiving past news stories for future reference and informing the public about the correction of news (Singer, 2003; Friend & Singer, 2007; Kovach & Rosenstiel, 2001; Joseph, 2011).

In the nineteenth century, industrialization, technological innovation, democratization and increasing literacy helped in the expansion of mass newspaper. The mass media were regarded as the defenders of democracy. Near the end of the nineteenth century, Yellow Journalism scandal not only questioned the ethical standards in journalism but also concerns in professional practices increased. People began to voice for the responsibility of media to serve the public interest. Thus, in 1910, the first journalistic code of ethics was drafted and adopted in Kansas, a U.S. state, by the Kansas Editorial Association. In 1922, American Society of Newspaper Editors (ASNE) prepared Canons of Journalism which widely accepted as a basis of the code of Ethics until the date. Later, in 1956, the concepts of social responsibility and public accountability were theorized by three scholars Siebert, Peterson, & Schramm in a seminal work entitled Four Theories of the Press.

Ethics is a branch of philosophy that favors social obligation. In media, ethics helps to maintain professionalism as well as helps to strengthen the quality of moral choices one has to make in their day to day life. Accountability is one of the important ethical standards that are discussed frequently. Ethical standards are important to make media responsible to the society and accountable to what is published. The ethical standards are derived also from religion, philosophy, culture, language, and customs and so on. According to Vivian, John (1999), there are five different duties to maintain accountability-duty to Self, audience, employer, profession, and society. In understanding there five different duties, one can maintain accountability in collection and dissemination of information.

In journalism, credibility is said to be the heart. Credible news wins the trust of the audience and for any media to survive, audience trust is important. While maintaining accountability, first of all, a journalist must understand their duties. In society, one gets the true respect only when they are dutiful of oneself. This respect is the power they can carry. With this power, a journalist can play the role of watchdog and thus, work efficiently. They can look for truth and maintain check and balance in the society. Also, while maintaining the duty to the audience, a journalist should not discriminate the readers at any cost. Race, religion, culture, political ideology, language, age can be some factors that can separate one person from another. A journalist while collecting and disseminating news must be careful not to discriminate the readers. A journalist must understand the sensitivity and thus should be in favor of protection of source. By following the journalistic ethics, one can make their profession worthy of pride.

Nepal has the Code of Journalistic Ethics, 2008 (Amended) as introduced, implemented and enforced by Press Council Nepal. This code of ethics creates a framework for the journalists to take ethical decisions while following their duties. In media, when something is written, one has to be accountable towards the consequences of the disseminated messages. The mushrooming media and unprofessional journalistic practice have time and again raised the question in the credibility of media. In the race of increasing viewership, sensationalized news, lack of proper sources and verification of sources has repeatedly created confusions. Mushrooming online medium claiming to be news media as well as so-called Big Media of the nation are equally involved in the race. Despite the error, lack of readiness to rectify errors has made journalism as one of the least trusted profession.

Media accountability is an important ethical framework that increases professionalism in Media. By following the code of ethics, one can perform responsibly in their profession as well as maintain their professional standard while fulfilling duty towards the society, self, and audience. The ethical standards vary from place to place but all aims to create a credible and accountable media/journalism practice. As mass media is a sensitive platform, one must be accountable towards the news collected and disseminated, thus, to maintain professionalism.

Works Cited

Friend, C. & Singer, J. S. (2007). Online journalism ethics: Traditions and transitions. New York: M.E. Sharp.

Kovach, B. & Rosenstiel, T. (2001). The elements of journalism. New York: Three Rivers Press.

Joseph, L. N. (2011). Correcting the record: The impact of the digital news age on the performance of press accountability. Journalism practice, 5(6), 704-718.



[2] Section 3 (4) Imparting true and factual information

[3] Section 3 (9) Rediness to rectify error

[4] Section 4 (6) Do not penalize the victims

No matter the Wreckage- Rebuilding Bouddha


Ashma Gautam

The visitors in the Stupa, on January 11,2016, were seen to be helping the workers by passing them bricks with a belief that building Bouddha is everybody’s equal responsibility.

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An Artistic all-party meet

Posted: March 22, 2016 in Assignments

In “#Blogs”
An Artistic all-party meet


Ashma Gautam

From December 27, 2015 to January 5, 2016, an artistic all party meet, through the medium of ink and paper, was observed at Nepal Art Council, Babarmahal, Kathmandu organized by Kabi Raj Lama, one of the contemporary artist of Nepal.

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Research Methodology Assignment #2

Posted: November 29, 2015 in Assignments

What is research design? What are its characteristics and elements? Also discuss various types of research design.

-Research design simply means the creating a detailed outline for the research process to be conducted. As research is a scientific process, it should be objective and should follow a proper system. Before carrying out the procedure of data collection and analysis, one must have a design or structure.

 “A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner th23017_4

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at aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure.”1

The Research design can be splitted into 4 parts:

(a) the sampling design which deals with the method of selecting items to be observed for the given study;

(b) the observational design which relates to the conditions under which the observations are to be made;

(c) the statistical design which concerns with the question of how many items are to be observed and how the information and data gathered are to be analysed; and (

d) the operational design which deals with the techniques by which the procedures specified in the sampling, statistical and observational designs can be carried out.(Kothari, 2004)

The Characteristics of Research can be listed as

  1. Objectivity
  2. Reliability
  3. Validity
  4. Generalization (, 2015)


The key elements of good research design are as under :

a. Research Design is a plan which identifies the sources and kinds of information strongly related to the research problem.
b. It is a strategy indicating which method is going to be employed for collecting and analyzing the data.
c. Additionally, it consists of the time and cost budgets because most research is done under these two constraints. In a nutshell a research design must contain

  • A clear statement of the research problem.
  • Methods and techniques to be utilized for gathering information from the population to be researched.
  • Approach to be utilized in processing and analyzing data.(, 2015)


Types of Research Design

  • Descriptive research: a study designed to depict the participants in an accurate way. The three main ways to collect this information are: Observational, defined as a method of viewing and recording the participants. Case study, defined as an in-depth study of an individual or group of individuals. Survey, defined as a brief interview or discussion with an individual about a specific topic
  • Correlation research:  looking for variables that seem to interact with each other, so that when you can see one changing, you have an idea of how the other will change. This often entails the researcher using variables that they can’t control. (e.g.,case-control study, observational study)
  • Semi-experimental (e.g., field experiment, quasi-experiment)
  • Experimental (Experiment with random assignment)
  • Review (Literature review, Systematic review)
  • Meta-analytic (Meta-analysis)

Claire Selltiz and others, Research Methods in Social Sciences, 1962, p. 50.

Kothari, C. (2004). Research Methodology (2nd ed.). New Delhi: New Age International Private Limited.,. (2015). What is Research Design, Definition & Characteristics. Retrieved 29 November 2015, from,. (2015). Elements of Research Design. Retrieved 29 November 2015, from

This post is solely for assignment purpose. This time, I do not own any materials mentioned in this post.

Research Methodology Assignment #1

Posted: September 28, 2015 in Assignments
  • Show your acquaintance with different methods of knowing. Why is science considered most trustworthy? Discuss with special reference to its characteristics. Provide suitable example discussing.

Human mind is curious. We are always in the continuous process of finding something or understanding something, be it consciously or unconsciously. We ponder and try and search for something that makes us wonder. As T.H Huxley says “We are all Scientists”, varying in the degree of reasoning, we all are, because we always want to know something and to know it, we follow various methods:

  1. Tenacity: Method of tenacity is formed with the logic that something is true because it has always been true. It focuses on how the knowledge has been transferred from generations to generations. It provides no space for rationalization. It does not give space for questioning thus does not search for valid source of the knowledge. The knowledge obtained from tenacity can be both positive and negative. It is the most criticized method as it is prone to error. For example: A store owner saying “I don’t advertise because my parents did not believe in advertising”. The idea is nothing changes. The thing considered to be good/bad/successful  before continues to be so.
  2. Authority: Method of authority emphasizes on finding the source. There is knowledge but we question to find the source which is reliable. The reliability depends upon the authority. When source is found, knowledge is considered to be true. This method is equally prone to error as it does not examine the reliability of the source objectively. It simply believes in the authoritative statement and thus, the knowledge obtained from this method cannot be completely true. For example: Believing that earth is flat because Bible says so. Here, the source is recognized but the validity of the knowledge provided by the source is not examined.
  3. Intuition: Another method of knowing is Intuition. Here, it is assumed something is true just because it is ‘self-evident’ or ‘stands to reason’. Knowledge is believed to be true through mental activity. It can be a rational approach but what can be an ideal truth to agree with? This method of knowing also has errors but it’s strength is it provide marketplace for ideas. But, it limits the scope of finding truth because people tend to believe what they know is true. For example: Some creative people in advertising agencies resists to test their advertising methods because they believe they know what will attract customers. To these people, scientific research is waste of time.
  4. Science: Finally, science being open, tentative and moving is considered to be the best way of knowing the truth. It emphasizes on step-by-step procedure which indicates what might or might not be true. The “truth” is found through series of objective analysis i.e. this method  is self-correcting and cumulative. The result from the systematic step is verifiable and can be replicated to some extent. For example: In 1984, Barry Marshall identified a bacterium Helicobacter pylori or H. pylori as the cause of stomach ulcer. After several years, hundreds of independent studies proved that Marshall was correct and in 1996, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a combination of drugs to fight ulcers- an antacid and an antibiotic.

Tenacity, Intuition and Authority are the subjective methods of knowing. In each of these methodologies, few missing factors made them incomplete and thus could not be considered as the ultimate way of knowing the truth. However, science being more objective and rational based on evidence and facts, was then considered to be the most trustworthy method of approach towards the truth. It does not mean science is always correct or less prone to error. But, the openness to correction and approach to find tentative truth makes is more reliable method to fulfill the human curiosity.

  1. Based on classroom lecture understanding

Book reference:

Wimmer, R.D., Dominick, J.R. (2013). Mass media research: An introduction (7th Edition), Belmont, CA: Wadsworth

A beginning

Posted: March 21, 2015 in Assignments, Writings

I did not believe in Shooting stars until I saw them. 7 shooting stars in a row in the same night, a night of pure darkness where stars were so clearly visible, that was the first night I fell in love with the sky once again, that pure sky with glittering diamonds smiling from millions of light years away. An ecstatic moment! uplThough Rolpa was our main destination, 7 days trip from Kathmandu University was not just confined to Rolpa. That was the first night in Arghakhanchi, right before the starting of Dang. The Lodge was situated near Rapti River. I had never had a chance to enjoy the cool breeze in freezing night looking up to the sky and thinking “What an Enigma!” I could feel the river, I could flow in it.

After (almost) 4 hour ride, we reached Tundikhel, Liwang the next day. Liwang Bazar, situated on a lap of Hills, was a magical scene for me. I don’t know how many districts we touched, how many kilometers we travelled because length of road or places was never my concern; the destination was, the bus ride was and the places we stopped attracted me, sometimes.

Rolpa is a district equally affected by a decade year civil war and we were there standing on the land. Honestly, I felt like I was in some places of Kathmandu when I stepped out of the bus. The only difference is you get lost into the tall houses in Kathmandu whereas in Liwang, you get lost in the surrounding with hills. We waited empty stomach for the hotel to be confirmed. It was 3pm, we still hadn’t had our lunch. Finally, the hotel situated 15 minutes away from the Tundikhel was confirmed as our place to stay. The group was divided. Some stayed in the hotel in Tundikhel and we, we started walking towards our destination.IMG_5994

We had three nights to stay in Liwang. Destination Thawang was cancelled because of the weather condition. We were confined to Liwang Bazar to work on out assignments. A discussion with local journalists was the work to do in the first day. But, away from Kathmandu, listening to few people giving speech in a room wasn’t something I would do. Then, we were asked “We are going to roam around nearby village. Are you going to join us?” My friend Sikuma and I agreed. Thanks to Jeewan brother for letting us in!

Rolpa felt like Rolpa when we began to walk through the gravel road. Me, Sikuma, Jeevan Dai, Milan and Deepan were on the ‘roaming’ team. I can never forget the ‘Level 1’ adventure we had on climbing down the seasonal stream on a rainy day. I was just praying that I won’t damage my camera or my tripod. Thankfully, it was safe! We kept on walking for 1½ hr, passing by the traditional houses, down the hill, towards the Jholunge pul, up the hill and reached Rumtawang, a small village lying on the hills of Liwang Bazar, away from those available facilities. As it was a day time, we could hardly find anybody in their home. Just a home without people with DTH antenna was all we could find. This day was different for me because I had never walked for this long, up the hill and I was breathing fine. It was my second Jholunge pul I ever walked through. And the best part is, it wasn’t necessary for me to use my inhaler to breather properly that day. In every step I took, I felt free, free as a bird. A realization began to develop; I am made for places like this! I framed the view of Liwang Bazar from the hill. Walking through the road, meeting Gita didi, Bista dai and other known as unknown faces with curious looks, and those million dollar smile and expression were the best thing that have ever happened to my life. Some of them carrying woods, some of them with “Syaula”, some of them were just walking towards their destination. All of them were curious to see new faces shooting pictures around. Was it the civil War effect? Yes. Expressing those moments through words is almost impossible. We can just try and that’s what I am doing.

IMG_6274The 2 hours walk to Bageshwori School next day made me think. I looked around the village. It was close to nature, it was beautiful, it had small markets, it had varieties of houses, it had school, what did it lack? Just the attention of Kathmandu! It was a primary school, on the top of the hill. Why on the top? What did the ‘top’ have? Nothing but the school. The main objective of visiting that school was our class and Unnat as a representative from Jaga Yuwa club, had decided to distribute some notebooks and chocolate to the needy students.

Next day, we climbed 3 hours and an hour ride in truck; up above the hill to reach Swargadwari was quite an adventure. A swargaday in Lumbini, we had another adventure of crossing the Nepal-India boarder and reaching India after an hour of cycle ride.

I didn’t feel necessary to note down the events of each and every day in and after the trip. 6 nights (7 days) tour from the Department was the whole new level of new experience for me. I walked like I had never walked before, I travelled in bus for hours and hours for the first time, I experienced the joy of photo-walk, meeting new people (though shy to start new conversation). All I brought back was a new experience, a new adventure, a realization, a belief in oneself and an importance of travelling. This tour gave me most important gift of my life: An open door. I can peek through that door to the number of possibilities and grab what’s best for me. It was a short tour, but a beginning. For me, it was just a beginning.

Communication is the process of exchanging of ideas, messages and information between two or more than two people with the help of any means or channel. But, just knowing the definition only is not enough, rather, the cause of defining communication in a particular way (approach) should also be known.


Earlier, communication scholars have recognized that there exists no meta-concept of communication. Different people understood communication in their own way. The Western scholars had tried to impose Western theories as the meta-theories relevant everywhere in the world irrespective of culture, religious or other differences. But these days, such approach in not valid.


The alternative conceptions of communication found in the West can be listed as:


  1. Communication as transmission
  2. Communication as ritual
  3. Communication as Publicity
  4. Communication as reception


These are also referred as four models of communications.


  1. Communication as transmission:  This approach defines communication as the process of transmission of message as intended by the source. Here, initiation of the communication is considered as an important factor for the communication to take place.  Those adopting this view define communication by various terms: imparting, sending, transmitting or giving information.


According to James W. Carey, the center of this idea of communication is the transmission of signals or messages over distance for the purpose of control.


This model is termed as engineering model because the medium plays central role in communication according to this approach and sender is highly emphasized in comparison to receiver. It is in line with linear models.


  1. Communication as Ritual: This approach defines communication as participation. The communication is defined in the terms such as sharing, participation, association, fellowship and the possession of common faith. The ritual model is referred as expressive model.


According to Carey, this view sees communication in terms of the representation of shared beliefs. He says that ritual view of communication is not directed towards the extension of message in space but the maintenance of society in time. In other words, ritual view does not confine communication to mechanistic understanding of transmission of information from one geographical point to the other.


Both sender and receiver has active role in the communication process as the culture is important in the communication. It does not exclude the process of information transmission. Rather, all engaged in communication gains something more than information.


  1. Communication as publicity: This approach defines communication as the process of influencing the mind of others through messages. It is called audience-capturing or display-attention model because it looks communication from the viewpoint of catching visual or aural attention of the users.


It acknowledges the significance of audience in the process and considers that audiences can be manipulated. Grabbing the attention is crucial in this approach.


  1. Communication as reception: This view has its root in critical theory and reception analysis where the approach has shifted the importance from technical to semiotic approach. The communication is defined from the perspective of receiver. Audience is highly emphasized because it is audience who gives meaning to the message.


Encoding and decoding are considered as the crucial moment in communication. It is not necessary that audience receive message or understand it as intended. Rather, messages are polysemic and it is receiver who draws meaning that depends upon his/her cultural and context.





Adhikary N.M. Communication, Media and Journalism An Integrated Study

The term ‘communication theory’ was not widely used until 1940s. The term first appeared in electrical engineering and later, it developed into a new science of communication with social application. Communication was essential to prevent the war after World War II. As communication research grew rapidly in 1940s, it began gaining recognition as interdisciplinary field. The research and theoretical writings were not limited to engineering theories but covered philosophical theories of persuasion and verbal behavior, sociological theories of group and mass communication and rhetorical theories of public discourse and speech communication. Although the field had existed in name for only few years, it holds its roots thousands years back.


Communication Theory is a field rich in diverse ideas but it does not exist as an identifiable field of study. This is because universally agreed theory of communication does not exists though there are hundreds of theories. They have been fragmented into separate domain where they simply ignore each other. The theorization of communication is growing widely because each theory helps to analyze communication process via different perspectives.  Craig in his article, argues that communication theorists can be unified in a dialogue by charting ‘dialogical-dialectical tension’ i.e. similarities and differences in their understanding of communication and demonstrating how those elements create tension within the field. He argues that communication theory rather forms an intellectual coherence (one grand theory does not exist; rather, it promotes dialogues and debates across the diverse traditions of communication theory). This paper expanded the conversation regarding disciplinary identity in the field of communication as there was little or no agreement on the books on how to present field or what theories to include.


Craig believes that different theories cannot develop in total isolation from one another therefore this dialogical-dialectical coherence will provide a set of background assumptions from which different theories can engage each other in productive argumentation. He argues for a meta-theory or second level theory that deals with first level theories about communication. This second level meta-model would help to understand the difference between first level of traditions and with this thesis, Craig propose seven traditions of communications. These traditions help to understand communication via different perspectives as well as the differences between each theory.


Seven Traditions of Communication


1)    Rhetoric: Rhetoric tradition views communication as an art of practical discourse. It is the oldest tradition that grew out of practices of oratory and debate in democratic polis in ancient Greece. It was first theorized in the writings of Aristotle and Plato and was elaborated later by Cicero in his writings that influenced rhetorical educational system for upcoming centuries. This tradition deals with what to say.


2)    Semiotic: Semiotic theory views communication as the study of signs. Modern semiotic theory began from 17th Century English philosopher John Locke who wrote that communication requires attaching clear ideas to the words. Semiotic theory of communication is the process with usage of signs (including language and other non verbal codes) that helps to communicate in subjective gap because the way of understanding differs from each individual.  For semiotic theory, communication problems are misunderstanding or unconscious misinterpretation of data due to difference in understanding the usage of codes. Post-Structuralist theory says signs have unstable meaning.


In contrast to rhetoric tradition, semiotic deals with how to say rather than what to say.


3)    Phenomenology: This tradition helps to understand communication as the experience of self and others in a dialogue. Like semiotic, the problem in communication arises due to the gaps between subjective viewpoints as one cannot directly experience others consciousness.


In contrast to rhetoric’s’ communication strategy and semiotics’ signs and meanings, phenomenology emphasizes the need for people to turn toward one another.


4)    Cybernetics: Cybernetics views communication as the flow of information. It grew from mid 20th century from electrical engineering. It downplays the differences between human communication and other kinds of information processing systems. Problem in communication arises due to glitches in information processing. Unlike other traditions, the problem is not due to what to say, meaning of signs or lack of authenticity but is due to unwanted patterns of interaction that can be difficult to change except by disrupting the system in some way.


5)    Social Psychology: It views communication as social interaction and influence. The psychological factor affects the communication process often with little awareness by communicators of the underlying causes at work. Mass media influences the individual in larger scale. Like the rhetorical tradition, this theory is concerned with effective communication but unlike rhetoric’s humanistic tradition, social psychology is a scientific tradition that emphasizes understanding the causes that statistically determine communication outcomes.



6)    Socio-cultural Theory: It views communication as a process of interaction that produces and reproduces shared meanings, rituals and social structures. This theory is derived from sociological and anthropological thoughts. There is tension in this theory between macro and micro approaches. Macro approach begins with society as a whole and show how society functions through communication at the same time. Micro approach begins with everyday social interaction and shows how meanings and social relations are created, maintained and altered in local, moment-moment communication.


7)    Critical Theory: This theory views communication as a discourse in which implicit assumptions behind what is said can be freely discussed and mutual understanding can be achieved. Critical theory argues that the power structure in society prevent genuine communication by excluding the voice of less powerful group systematically.


Thus, Craig concluded with an open invitation to explore how the differences in these theories might help to shed light in key issues. Craig further proposes several future traditions that could possibly be fit into the metamodel.  A feminist tradition where communication is theorized as “connectedness to others”, an aesthetic tradition theorizing communication as “embodied performance”, an economic tradition theorizing communication as “exchange”, and a spiritual tradition theorizing communication on a “nonmaterial or mystical plane of existence.”





 Craig, R.T. (1999) Communication Theory as a Field

Craig, R.T. Traditions of Communication Theory

Craig, R.T. Communication as a field and discipline